Year of creation:1616
- Rider(s):Philip III
(1578–1621), also known as Philip the Pious, has been negative; an ‘undistinguished and insignificant man,’ a ‘miserable monarch’, whose ‘only virtue appeared to reside in a total absence of vice,’ to quote three major historians of the period. In particular, Philip’s reliance on his corrupt chief minister, the Duke of Lerma drew much criticism at the time and afterwards. For many, the decline of Spain can be dated to the economic difficulties that set in during the early years of his reign. Philip’s initial aim was to achieve a decisive ‘great victory’ in the long running war against the rebellious Dutch provinces of the Spanish Netherlands, but this strategy began to descend into a financial war of attrition, resulting in a truce with the Dutch in 1609. The Twelve Years’ Truce did not only enable the Southern Netherlands to recover, but it turned out to be a de facto recognition of the independence of the Dutch Republic as many European powers established diplomatic relations with it.
- Sculptor(s):Giambologna / Tacca, Pietro
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