- Town:Ulan Bator
- Rider(s):Mukhulai (Muqali)
(1170–1223) was one of the greatest generals under Genghis Khan. He was able to subdue most of Northern China with a relatively small force of around 20,000 men. In seven years of campaigning in northern China, he had reduced the Jin Empire to the province of Henan. On his deathbed, he was able to declare with pride that he had never been defeated.
After the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty in 1368, the Mongols returned to their earlier patterns of internal strife, with the result that by the end of the seventeenth century, what is now modern-day Mongolia had been incorporated into the area ruled by the Manchu-led Qing
dynasty. During the collapse of the Qing in 1911, Mongolia declared independence, but had to struggle until 1921 to firmly establish de facto independence. It took until 1945 for the country to gain international recognition.
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